when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthessis: (myOptionVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionVar.foo)?? The failing instruction (FTL stack trace): ---------- ==> ${speciesVo.taxon_knm?js_string} [in template "include/enc_layout1.ftl" at line 14, column 63] #if speciesVo?exists [in template "include/enc_layout1.ftl" at line 8, column 9] #include "/include/enc_layout1.ftl" [in template "enc/viewSpecies.ftl" at line 1, column 1] ---------- Java stack trace (for programmers): ---------- freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException: [... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance(InvalidReferenceException.java:98) at freemarker.core.EvalUtil.coerceModelToString(EvalUtil.java:382) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalAndCoerceToString(Expression.java:115) at freemarker.core.StringBuiltins$StringBuiltIn._eval(StringBuiltins.java:87) at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:111) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalAndCoerceToString(Expression.java:115) at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:76) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.IfBlock.accept(IfBlock.java:84) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.include(Environment.java:1712) at freemarker.core.Include.accept(Include.java:172) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:243) at freemarker.template.Template.process(Template.java:277) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.processTemplate(FreeMarkerView.java:366) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.doRender(FreeMarkerView.java:276) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.renderMergedTemplateModel(FreeMarkerView.java:233) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractTemplateView.renderMergedOutputModel(AbstractTemplateView.java:167) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractView.render(AbstractView.java:264) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.render(DispatcherServlet.java:1201) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.processDispatchResult(DispatcherServlet.java:986) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:933) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:851) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:953) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:844) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:705) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:829) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:818) at jeus.servlet.engine.ServletWrapper.executeServlet(ServletWrapper.java:243) at jeus.servlet.filter.FilterChainImpl.internalDoFilter(FilterChainImpl.java:141) at jeus.servlet.filter.FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterChainImpl.java:93) at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:88) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:106) at jeus.servlet.filter.FilterChainImpl.internalDoFilter(FilterChainImpl.java:124) at jeus.servlet.filter.FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterChainImpl.java:93) at jeus.servlet.engine.ServletWrapper.execute(ServletWrapper.java:204) at jeus.servlet.engine.WebtobRequestProcessor.run(WebtobRequestProcessor.java:226)